Second webinar of the HAQAA African Network on Regional and Continental Integration in African Higher Education

This survey, absolutely anonymous, is conceived simply to assess, or to confirm, that your background knowledge of the issues to be tackled in the second webinar of the HAQAA African Network on Regional and Continental Integration in African Higher Education (HE) is sufficient in order to proceed to a deeper discussion and understanding of them.

The questions are very simple and demand an also very simple binary answer: YES or NO

1. In an advanced capitalist economy (that of Germany, for example), State intervention through regulation is limited to the correction of “market failures”?(Required)
you can easily find on the Internet, or in most textbooks, a standard definition of “market failures”; see, for example, https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Market_failure
2. When State regulations exist and they diverge, with the result that indirect barriers to trade and investment between economic operators of different States appear, there are two alternative ways to solve this problem in a process of regional/continental integration: regional harmonization of laws or mutual recognition.(Required)
3. In the European Community / European Union context, as the principle of mutual recognition is enshrined in the founding Treaties, the need for harmonization is very limited.(Required)
4. When harmonization is needed, the European Community / European Union can only enact “directives”.(Required)
5. On content, a directive is a very peculiar type of legislation in which the EU (the EC before) simply gives broad guidelines of the regulation and leaves to Member States the task of “filling the details” within that legislation.(Required)
6. On more formally legal aspects, the directive is also a very peculiar piece of international / regional legislation because it only enters into force after it has been transposed / internalized / domesticated by Member States.(Required)
7. In the HE area, the Bologna process has worked, from a legal perspective, on the basis of the principle of mutual recognition enshrined in the EC/ EU Treaties(Required)
8. In the African context, the UNESCO Addis Revised Convention on the Recognition of Studies, Certificates, Diplomas, Degrees and Other Academic Qualifications on Higher Education in African States provides the basis for a progressive process of harmonization of African HE.(Required)
9. In the African context, the Protocol to the Treaty Establishing the African Economic Community Relating to the Free Movement of Persons, Right of Residence and Right of Establishment (AU Free Movement Protocol), initially contained (1991) in the Abuja Treaty, and sort of “readopted” more than 20 years later within the context of the AfCFTA, does not envisage a process of harmonization of laws.(Required)
10. For Africa to achieve a level of integration comparable to that of the EU in the area of undergraduate and postgraduate higher education, it is absolutely needed to enact some continental legal provisions harmonizing some aspects of States legislation on this area.(Required)